Author Archives: raj_galgalikar

December 4, 2017


ACTIVATED ALUMINA

Recovery of Pyrogen free Drug through Chromatography Using Activated Alumina

Alumina is the name linked to alum, a compound of Aluminium and Disulphate. Alumina was first extracted from clay using Sulphuric acid in 1754 and the word “Alumina ” was coined in 1761. It is also named as Bauxite, since Alumina was found abundant in the place called Les Baux in Southeast France.

Alumina was first manufactured in 1860 in France using Saint-Claire Deville process. Whereas, the Perfect process for extracting Alumina from Bauxite came from an Austrian and the process was named after him as the “Bayer’s Process”. This process is widely used until today, as the Alumina is in great demand worldwide for material applications.

Alumina exists in several allotropic forms, among them Activated Alumina (Al2O3) or Aluminium oxide which exists in porous form is of great demand because of its porosity. Activated Alumina is obtained after a series of process which includes dissolution of double salt of Aluminium in water at 85degrees Centigrade , recrystallizing it at a pressure of 250psi and a temperature of about 250degrees C. After which it is precipitated and roasted at 850 to 950degrees Centigrade to remove sulfates and finally drying the remaining Alumina yields a high-grade of Alumina called as Activated Alumina.

Metal oxides with the large surface area to Volume ratio are considered as anti-microbial agents. In packaging industries, these anti-microbial agents are of much significance as they stop the growth of microorganisms. Studies revealed that Activated Alumina shows the antimicrobial activity of the microbial forms and is considered as an Anti-microbial agent. Since Activated Alumina has inherent shelf-life; it can be regenerated at a temperature of 110 degrees to 150-degree Centigrade.

ALUMINA BALLS

Activated-Alumina-Balls

Alumina under heat or pressure gets moulded into a solid mass material and is referred to as Alumina Balls. These are white in colour, spherical in shape and they are available in a size ranging from 25mm to70mm. Alumina Balls are specifically robust in nature, therefore not only used in the absorption of moisture but also in the absorption of gases. Accordingly, Alumina balls are not only used as an Adsorbent but also as a catalyst bed support in oil refining and petrochemical, because of its high resistance towards high temperatures and high pressures. Based on the requirement in Industries or Mills and role of Alumina balls, they are Classified into Alumina Grinding Balls and Alumina Supporting Balls.

  • Alumina Grinding Balls: These are used in ball mills, sand mills and Industries which manufacture glazed Tiles where Alumina Grinding Balls are used in replacement with natural pebble as grinding media as they are hard due to high density and resist corrosion. Depending on the lining in grinding media they are available in sphere, cylinders or brick forms.
  • Alumina Supporting Balls: These are used in Gasification, Petroleum, chemical and Fertilizer Industries, where they support to increase the intensity of the catalyst and also the distribution of gas or liquid in the reacting tower. They are available in Regular as well as in Columnar shape.

ACTIVATED ALUMINA POWDER

allumina powder

Activated Alumina powder can be obtained by calcining the Alumina Precursor powder. It is white in colour and the particle size range from 70 to 290 mesh.  It is mostly employed in Chromatography Techniques as they show a characteristic feature of change in pH when slurred with water. The surface area of the Activated Alumina increases along with an increase in the pH value. Chromatography is an analytical technique used for the separation of chemical substances, like Acids, Alkaloids, Steroids, Aldehydes, Ketones, Alcohols and many more. Mostly Activated Alumina Powder with approximately particle size 150 mesh is Preferred for Chromatography. Before performing the Chromatography for separation, the activated Alumina after slurred with water is treated with acid or base to adjust the pH to make it suitable for separation. If the pH of Activated Alumina Slurred is 4.5 then it is called as Acidic Alumina and is used for the separation of strong Acids. If the pH of Activated Alumina Slurred is 10, then it is called as Basic Alumina and is used for the separation of Alcohols, Alkaloids, and Steroids. But if the pH of Activated Alumina Slurred is 7, then it is called as Neutral Alumina and is used for the separation of Aldehydes,  Ketones , Esters.

Activated Alumina because of its large surface area to volume ratio, has immense commercial applications in Biomedical as well as in Pharmaceutical field. The large surface area of the Activated alumina plays a major role by altering the biological activity of microorganism, thereby affecting its growth. In Pharmaceutical field, Isolation of Drug requires the elimination of the Pyrogens, originating from the cell walls of Bacteria also called as endotoxins, which is achieved by  Activated Alumina.  Pyrogen removal or purification of endotoxins from the drugs is enhanced by modifying the activated surface of Alumina to absorb depending on which process it is employed; used as a membrane or used in a Colum Chromatography.

Recovery of Pyrogen free Drug through Chromatography Using Activated Alumina

Recovery of Pyrogen free Drug through Chromatography Using Activated Alumina1

In Column Chromatography,  Activated Alumina is considered as the stationary phase as it enables the least polar compounds to elute first and retains the more polar compound for a longer time. In Column chromatography, there are two methods of packing the column with Activated Alumina. One being the slurry method and the other being the Dry pack method.Dry pack method is employed for microscale separation, whereas Slurry method for Macro scales separation.

Dry pack method: In Dry pack method, Activated Alumina is added to the non-polar solvent, present in the column, such that it floats to the bottom of the Column or Activated Alumina is deposited to an intended height in the Column as it is the stationary phase, then the non-polar solvent is added. After which a thin horizontal band of the drug to be isolated mixed with the polar solvent is added at the top of the column. Then a small layer of sand is added to the top of the column followed by the Solvent eluent. Fractions of the sample containing drug based on TLC results is collected after opening the stopcock, then the solvent in it is evaporated, after which the pure form of the drug is obtained which is then recrystallized.

Slurry Pack Method: In Slurry pack method, Activated Alumina is first mixed with small amount of non-polar solvent in the beaker, then it is poured in the column followed by the addition of the isolating drug and sand. This method gives the best packing if it is evenly distributed.

This Column Chromatography is time-consuming; therefore for a speedy recovery of the Pyrogen free drug, Flash Chromatography method is used in which the rate of the mobile phase is increased by passing 10psi pressure of air or Nitrogen through the fine grade of Activated Alumina.

Role of Activated Alumina in Biopharmaceutical Industries

Role of Activated Alumina in Biopharmaceutical Industries

Pharmaceutical drugs that are semi synthesized and isolated from a living source or Biological source such as microbes are considered as Biopharmaceuticals. They include Vaccines, Antibiotics, Steroids and many more. Secondary metabolites produced by bacteria are considered as Antibiotics, which need to isolate and purify. The Purification of Antibiotics is performed through a series of extraction after which the Antibiotic is finally recovered by Organic Chemical Means such as Column wise purification. In this method, Acidic Alumina placed in the column absorbs the impurities and allows the passage of the Antibiotic through the Column. For Satisfactory purification, Alumina at a ratio of 50:1 based on the solid, present in the feed solution is to be used. Biopharmaceutical drugs have become potent and viable, which is a major concern in the field of Biopharmaceuticals. The inefficiency is attributed due to the ineffective production of the drugs. Therefore,  Metal oxides such as Activated Alumina among others are currently the most prominent tool applied for the purification of Biopharmaceuticals. Since the purification process requires de-colourisation of the medical component or drug, Activated Alumina being amphoteric, stable at high temperatures and pressure gives the desired product.

Due to electrostatic forces of the Activated Alumina, Higher molecular weight medical components, such as Vancomycin, Colistin, Gentamicin isolation and purification is been made easy. The macroporous nature of Activated Alumina which acts as a resin which in turn selectively absorbs the effective part of the medical component from the fermented broth thereby enhances the stability of the Product.

peroxide Removal from THF using activated alumina balls
December 4, 2017


Chemical compounds when stored for a prolonged period and later when exposed to air and light undergo slow oxidation and lead to the formation of Peroxide, which can be visualized in the form of Crystals. The Peroxide thus, formed get detonated on combining with other compounds or when disturbed due to fiction or heat resulting in an explosion. This is because of the Chemicals or Chemical compounds having oxidation and reduction center within the same molecule. Thus, such chemical compounds are instable and undergo auto-decomposition even on exposure to Sunlight. The Presence of peroxides can be detected by using Peroxide test strips. The change in the colour of the strips indicates the presence of Peroxide.

peroxide Removal from THF

Peroxide forming chemicals include Di-isopropyl ether, Di-vinyl acetylene, Sodium amide, Vinylidiene Chloride, Dioxane, Diethyl ether, Tetra hydro Furan. Among these Tetra hydro Furan(C4H8O) also known as Oxolone, is a solvent which is most often used in manufacturing of Rubber, Plastics, Dyes, PVC pies and even in food storage and Packaging material.

THF(Tetra Hydro Furan) PeroxideTest:

Presence of Peroxide indicates the formation of Tetrahydrofuran peroxide formation in the solvent, which can be established by performing THF peroxide Test which gives the concentration of peroxide level in THF solvent. In this test Peroxide test strip is placed in the solvent for 1 second, and then removed. If the strip turns deep blue, green or brown it indicates high peroxide levels in the solvent. The gradations on the color scale 0,5,60,250 and 500ppm indicates the concetation of the peroxide level in THF.

THF peroxide test

Therefore, proper handling of THF{Tetra hydro Furan)Mfg is necessary as it stimulates  the rate of peroxide formation within a short time. By following the guidelines by EH&S, which are given below not only slows down the rate of peroxide formation but also prevents the peroxide contamination.

 

Best Guidelines for removal of peroxide from THF (Tetra Hydro Furan)

  • Identification: Based on peroxide formation, Identify the Chemical, which are classified into

Class A: Severe Peroxide Hazard, which need to be disposed off within 3 months if opened.

Class B: Concentration Hazard, need to be disposed off within 6 months if opened.

Class C: Shock and Heat Sensitive, need to be disposed off within 6 months if opened.

Class D: Potential Peroxide forming Chemicals need to be disposed off only if peroxide crystals      are Present.

Therefore, THF (Tetra Hydro Furan)Mfg is considered as a Class C, Chemical as it is Shock and Heat Sensitive.

  • Handling: Handle the peroxide forming chemicals, such as THF (Tetra Hydro Furan)Mfg only when labeled with Date received and Date opened .
  • Storage: Do not store, Peroxide forming Chemicals such as THF (Tetra Hydro Furan)Mfg in direct sunlight as it accelerates peroxide Formation. Store in a tightly closed, air-impermeable, light resistant containers.
  • Disposal: Peroxide forming Chemicals, such as THF (Tetra Hydro Furan)Mfg must be disposed off, even if unopened within a time frame of 1year.

Procedures for the Removal of Peroxides in THF (Tetrahydrofuran) Mfg:  

Procedures for the Removal of Peroxides in THF (Tetrahydrofuran)

Removal of peroxides is performed by various methods, in which absorption by Activated Alumina is considered as an efficient process. Removal of Peroxides is possible only if the concentration of peroxide, in parts per million is low, such as-

  • If the concentration of Peroxide level is less than 30ppm, it is considered has Hazardous. Thus formed peroxide is removed either by Distillation Process or by Evaporation process or by Chromatography process.
  • But if the concentration of Peroxide level is greater than 30ppm, it is considered has deadly Hazardous and need to be disposed off  carefully using a suitable procedure.

Distillation:  

Distillation process is employed for the THF(Tetrahydrfuran)mfg containing only 0ppm of Peroxide. In this process the THF fraction of vapour steam is absorbed by the Activated Alumina Balls after which a multi-stage distillation is run which gives a peroxide free THF.Since, Distillation eliminates the inhibitor if present , enhancing peroxide formation, it is a less often used procedure.

Evaporation :

Evaporation process requires a significant amount of heat, which is why employed for removal of low level of Peroxides. Since this evaporation process is performed in a rotary evaporator containing round bottomed flask, only low level peroxides which possess less hazard are said to be subjected to Evaporation. Hence it is considered as the safe procedure only for low Volumes of THF(Tetrahydrfuran)Mfg.

Chromatography:

Column Chromatography which consists of a glass tube with bottom portion of the column packed with glass wool or cotton wool, above which the absorbent, Activated Alumina powder slurred is poured and a paper disc is placed above it. Then peroxide contamiated THF(Tetrahydrfuran)Mfg solvent is added to the column, which slowly passes through the packed column and gets eluted on removing the glass wool which is collected in a brown glass bottle . The Peroxide free THF(Tetrahydrfuran) thus obtained is filled with an inert gas to prevent reformation of Peroxide on contact with Oxygen. The peroxide absorbed by the Activated Alumina in the Column is then flushed with suitable dilute acids such as Potassium Iodide or Ferrous Sulfate in order to remove the peroxide that is absorbed.

peroxide Removal from THF using activated alumina power via chromatography

THF(Tetrahydrfuran) being a water-misscible organic solvent, is passed on through Activated Alumina,in  the Column , which absorbs the peroxides present in the Solvent .In Chromatography, Absorbent plays a main role in peroxide removal . On the other hand Activated Alumina being available in Activated Alumina powder form and Alumina Ball form absorbs the peroxides at a faster rate.

ACTIVATED ALUMINA

Activated Alumina being porous in nature with a high surface area absorbs Peroxide by intermolecular attraction force, until equilibrium is attained between the Solvent and the Solute in the Column. As the Activated Alumina can be slurred it act as a best Absorbent to yield high efficient peroxide free THF(Tetrahydrfuran).

ALUMINA BALLS

Alumina under heat or pressure gets molded into a solid mass material and is referred to as Alumina Balls. Alumina Balls act as a Catalyst better than absorbent because of uniform and regular shape increase the distribution of the THF solvent, thereby holding the contaminant, i.e, Peroxide .

ACTIVATED ALUMINA BALL

Alumina under heat or pressure gets molded into a solid mass material and is referred to as Alumina Balls. These are white in color, spherical in shape and they are available in a size ranging from 25mm to70mm.Activated Alumina Balls which act as Catalyst in Hydrogen peroxide production is also used to trap the peroxides when the THF (Tetrahydrfuran) peroxide solvent is run through the Vertical Columns containing Activated Alumina Balls.

Activated Alumina price hike seems to be inevitable with the growing need at Industrial level as well as for new technologies and researches.

activated alumina balls

Uses Of Activated Alumina:

  • Commercially available techniques for water purification such as Ultra filtration, Membrane separation, Reverse Osmosis , Adsorption and many more rely on the sorbent – Activated Alumina.
  • Activated Alumina is also used for Hydrogen Purification, Feedstock drying, Solvent Purification.
  • Drying CO2 in Breweries, inert gas drying, Removal of H2S from natural gas , Polymer Purification is also performed by Activated Alumina.
  • LPG sweetening, Propane Sweetening, LNG sweetening is also achieved through Activated Alumina.
  • TBC removal from Styrene, Butadiene during Polymerization is also carried on by Activated Aumina.

Activated Alumina Balls
February 6, 2017


 

Activated Alumina and its Benefits

Activated Alumina is a very commonly used desiccant. It is generally manufactured by dehydroxylating Aluminium Hydroxide in such a manner that the end result is a highly porous material. It is this porous material, which is widely used in removing impurities from the surroundings. Activated Alumina is known to have a surface area of more than 200 square metres/g. This desiccant is not only widely used for its large surface area but also for its very high surface-area-to-weight ratio, which make the adsorbent process faster and more effective.

 

The main benefits of using Activated Alumina is that more moisture molecules/impurities can be absorbed over more area in a shorter period of time. The numerous tunnel-like pores of the Activated Alumina desiccant are its biggest plus-point. They allow only those molecules to pass through, which are smaller than the even-sized pores while the larger molecules are left behind. This is how Activated Alumina desiccant successfully filters substances.

 

Activated Alumina for Effective Water Filtration

 

Activated Alumina Water Filter

Activated Alumina balls are the first choice of municipal corporations around the world for removing impurities like fluoride, arsenic and selenium from water meant for drinking and household purposes. This is done by immersing Activated Alumina filters into the water, which is to be removed of impurities. When it comes in contact with the water, the Activated Alumina desiccant will begin its work and start absorbing all the impurities present in the water. Main among these impurities is fluoride, which can lead to many complications like fluorosis, weaker bones and various other deficiencies. Fluorosis is dangerous especially for young children, because it can lead to them having lesser IQ, thus seriously affecting their emotional and physical growth.

 

Activated alumina water filter can very easily reduce the fluoride levels present in the water meant for drinking purposes from 10.0 ppm to less than 1.0 ppm. The amount of fluoride absorbed from the water being filtered depends on how long the water is in actual contact with the immersed activated alumina filters. If more of the activated alumina filters are in contact with the water, which is to be treated then more fluoride molecules can be absorbed. This will result in there being less fluoride in the final filtered water. Such treated water is fit for drinking as well as household purposes.

 

Lower temperature water and lowered acidic water are also filtered more effectively with the help of Activated Alumina water filter.

 

December 13, 2016


What are Activated Alumina Balls?

 

Activated Alumina BallsActivated Alumina Balls are a commonly used desiccant. They are in demand mainly for two reasons- large surface area and high absorption qualities. Other properties of Activated Alumina Balls, which add to its popularity are 1) its insolubility in water 2) easily dissolving in acids and alkalies. Both these properties make it the best desiccant for absorbing toxins and harmful substances from the surroundings.

 

Main Features of Activated Alumina Balls

 

Activated Alumina Balls have many distinct features. Some of the main ones are listed below:

 

1) Highly recommended for removing moisture from gases.

2) High degrees of porosity and more surface area.

3) Best suited for compressed air drying systems.

4) Remains physically and chemically intact during high temperatures.

5) Can remove many fluoride molecules from drinking water.

 

Different Uses of Activated Alumina Balls

Air Drying Desiccants

Activated Alumina Balls have uses across various industries. These include water purification, thermal swing adsorption process, oil filtration, air and gas drying, heated and heat less drying process. Among all the uses, the main use of Activated Alumina balls is in purification of drinking water. In this process, the Activated Alumina balls are first placed in the water that has to be purified. As the pH and alkaline levels of the water is low, more fluoride molecules will be attracted to the Activated Alumina desiccant. In this way, the water meant for drinking and household purposes is purified and freed from impurities and harmful substances.

 

The biggest advantage of using Activated Alumina balls in water purification is that as the desiccant has numerous pores, it can attract more fluoride molecules over a larger surface area. This translates into more impurities being taken in over more areas. The water meant for purification usually contains 2ppm (parts per million) fluoride levels before filtration. This water is then passed through Activated Alumina filters. After purification, the water is found to contain fluoride levels less than .1ppm. This shows how effective Activated Alumina balls are as a desiccant.

 

Suppliers of Activated Alumina Balls

 

With so much demand for Activated Alumina balls, it is important to ensure that the supply of these desiccants is done in a proper and efficient manner. One of the most well-known suppliers of Activated Alumina Balls in the country is Sorbead India. The company is committed to bring to its clients reasonable wholesale Activated Alumina Prices. The Activated Alumina prices being offered by Sorbead India are at par with any of our competitors. Keeping all these factors in mind, it is a good idea to buy Activated Alumina from Sorbead India. The company was set up in 1996 and today is one of the leading suppliers and distributors of Desiccants and Adsorbents in the country.